Beginning in 1867, the Swedish military started fielding versions of the single-shot Remington Rolling Block rifle and carbine. In 1887, rifles—originally chambered in 12.7x42 mm R—were converted to the more modern, smallbore 8x58 mm R cartridge. The carbines, however, remained in 12 mm.
In the 1860s, at the dawn of the self-contained metallic cartridge era, the military armsmakers of Great Britain and other major powers decided to alter existing muzzleloading rifle-muskets into breechloaders. Reasons included saving production costs and buying time to permit experimentation.