Smith Christmas Erinshope 14

Erin’s Hope: The Fenian Needham Conversion Rifle

During the second invasion of Canada in 1870, the Fenian forces relied on several thousand Needham breech-loading converted rifle-muskets to go up against Canadian defenses. Just how well did these Needham conversions work? 

Defending Canadian Homes: The Missisquoi 'Red Sashes' Of 1870

After their farms were raided by Fenian invaders in 1866, Canadian residents of Quebec’s Missisquoi region formed their own militia called the "Red Sashes," which fought against a second Fenian incursion in 1870.


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